Thursday, May 4, 2017

Toyota testimony analysis: a helpful framework

Intentional Fallacy

Sometimes a speaker or writer uses a fallacy intentionally. In any context, including academic debate, a conversation among friends, political discourse, advertising, or for comedic purposes, the arguer may use fallacious reasoning to try to persuade the listener or reader, by means other than offering relevant evidence, that the conclusion is true.

Examples of this include the speaker or writer:[15]
  1. Diverting the argument to unrelated issues with a red herring (Ignoratio elenchi)
  2. Insulting someone's character (argumentum ad hominem)
  3. Assume the conclusion of an argument, a kind of circular reasoning, also called "begging the question" (petitio principi)
  4. Making jumps in logic (non-sequitur)
  5. Identifying a false cause and effect (post hoc ergo propter hoc)
  6. Asserting that everyone agrees (bandwagoning)
  7. Creating a "false dilemma" ("either-or fallacy") in which the situation is oversimplified
  8. Selectively using facts (card-stacking)
  9. Making false or misleading comparisons (false equivalence and false analogy)
  10. Generalizing quickly and sloppily (hasty generalization]